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La storia, da antica a contemporanea

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  Inviato da: ADPUF  Mostra tutti i messaggi di ADPUF
Titolo: Vichinghi = pirati
Newsgroup: it.cultura.storia
Data: 15/10/2017
Ora: 20:55:46
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  <br /> <br /> The word &ldquo;Viking&rdquo; entered the Modern English language in 1807,<br /> at a time of growing nationalism and empire building. In the<br /> decades that followed, enduring stereotypes about Vikings<br /> developed, such as wearing horned helmets and belonging to a<br /> society where only men wielded high status.<br /> <br /> During the 19th century, Vikings were praised as prototypes and<br /> ancestor figures for European colonists. The idea took root of<br /> a Germanic master race, fed by crude scientific theories and<br /> nurtured by Nazi ideology in the 1930s. These theories have<br /> long been debunked, although the notion of the ethnic purity<br /> of the Vikings still seems to have popular appeal &ndash; and it is<br /> embraced by white supremacists.<br /> <br /> In contemporary culture, the word Viking is generally<br /> synonymous with Scandinavians from the ninth to the 11th<br /> centuries. We often hear terms such as &ldquo;Viking blood&rdquo;, &ldquo;Viking<br /> DNA&rdquo; and &ldquo;Viking ancestors&rdquo; &ndash; but the medieval term meant<br /> something quite different to modern usage. Instead it defined<br /> an activity: &ldquo;Going a-Viking&rdquo;. Akin to the modern word pirate,<br /> Vikings were defined by their mobility and this did not<br /> include the bulk of the Scandinavian population who stayed at<br /> home.<br /> &lsquo;Going a-Viking&rsquo;. Shutterstock<br /> <br /> While the modern word Viking came to light in an era of<br /> nationalism, the ninth century &ndash; when Viking raids ranged<br /> beyond the boundaries of modern Europe &ndash; was different. The<br /> modern nation states of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were still<br /> undergoing formation. Local and familial identity were more<br /> prized than national allegiances. The terms used to describe<br /> Vikings by<br /> contemporaries: &ldquo;wicing&rdquo;, &ldquo;rus&rdquo;, &ldquo;magi&rdquo;, &ldquo;gennti&rdquo;, &ldquo;pagani&rdquo;, &ldquo;pirati&rdquo;<br /> tend to be non-ethnic. When a term akin to Danes, &ldquo;danar&rdquo; is<br /> first used in English, it appears as a political label<br /> describing a mix of peoples under Viking control.<br /> <br /> The mobility of Vikings led to a fusion of cultures within<br /> their ranks and their trade routes would extend from Canada to<br /> Afghanistan. A striking feature of the early Vikings&rsquo; success<br /> was their ability to embrace and adapt from a wide range of<br /> cultures, whether that be the Christian Irish in the west or<br /> the Muslims of the Abbasid Caliphate in the east.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> ***Blending of cultures<br /> <br /> Developments in archaeology in recent decades have highlighted<br /> how people and goods could move over wider distances in the<br /> early Middle Ages than we have tended to think. In the eighth<br /> century, (before the main period of Viking raiding began), the<br /> Baltic was a place where Scandinavians, Frisians, Slavs and<br /> Arabic merchants were in frequent contact. It is too<br /> simplistic to think of early Viking raids, too, as hit-and-run<br /> affairs with ships coming directly from Scandinavia and<br /> immediately rushing home again.<br /> <br /> Recent archaeological and textual work indicates that Vikings<br /> stopped off at numerous places during campaigns (this might be<br /> to rest, restock, gather tribute and ransoms, repair equipment<br /> and gather intelligence). This allowed more sustained<br /> interaction with different peoples. Alliances between Vikings<br /> and local peoples are recorded from the 830s and 840s in<br /> Britain and Ireland. By the 850s, mixed groups of Gaelic<br /> (Gaedhil) and foreign culture (Gaill) were plaguing the Irish<br /> countryside.<br /> <br /> Written accounts survive from Britain and Ireland condemning or<br /> seeking to prevent people from joining the Vikings. And they<br /> show Viking war bands were not ethnically exclusive. As with<br /> later pirate groups (for example the early modern pirates of<br /> the Caribbean), Viking crews would frequently lose members and<br /> pick up new recruits as they travelled, combining dissident<br /> elements from different backgrounds and cultures.<br /> <br /> The cultural and ethnic diversity of the Viking Age is<br /> highlighted by finds in furnished graves and silver hoards<br /> from the ninth and tenth centuries. In Britain and Ireland<br /> only a small percentage of goods handled by Vikings are<br /> Scandinavian in origin or style.<br /> From the Galloway Hoard, discovered in Scotland in 2014. John<br /> Lord, CC BY<br /> <br /> The Galloway hoard, discovered in south-west Scotland in 2014,<br /> includes components from Scandinavia, Britain, Ireland,<br /> Continental Europe and Turkey. Cultural eclecticism is a<br /> feature of Viking finds. An analysis of skeletons at sites<br /> linked to Vikings using the latest scientific techniques<br /> points to a mix of Scandinavian and non-Scandinavian peoples<br /> without clear ethnic distinctions in rank or gender.<br /> <br /> The evidence points to population mobility and acculturation<br /> over large distances as a result of Viking Age trade networks.<br /> <br /> The Viking Age was a key period in state formation processes in<br /> Northern Europe, and certainly by the 11th and 12th centuries<br /> there was a growing interest in defining national identities<br /> and developing appropriate origin myths to explain them. This<br /> led to a retrospective development in areas settled by Vikings<br /> to celebrate their links to Scandinavia and downplay<br /> non-Scandinavian elements.<br /> <br /> The fact that these myths, when committed to writing, were not<br /> accurate accounts is suggested by self-contradictory stories<br /> and folklore motifs. For example, medieval legends concerning<br /> the foundation of Dublin (Ireland) suggest either a Danish or<br /> Norwegian origin to the town (a lot of ink has been spilt over<br /> this matter over the years) &ndash; and there is a story of three<br /> brothers bringing three ships which bears comparison with<br /> other origin legends. Ironically, it was the growth of nation<br /> states in Europe which would eventually herald the end of the<br /> Viking Age.<br /> <br /> <br /> ***Unrecognisable nationalism<br /> <br /> In the early Viking Age, modern notions of nationalism and<br /> ethnicity would have been unrecognisable. Viking culture was<br /> eclectic, but there were common features across large areas,<br /> including use of Old Norse speech, similar shipping and<br /> military technologies, domestic architecture and fashions that<br /> combined Scandinavian and non-Scandinavian inspirations.<br /> <br /> It can be argued that these markers of identity were more about<br /> status and affiliation to long-range trading networks than<br /> ethnic symbols. A lot of social display and identity is<br /> non-ethnic in character. One might compare this to<br /> contemporary international business culture which has adopted<br /> English language, the latest computing technologies, common<br /> layouts for boardrooms and the donning of Western suits. This<br /> is a culture expressed in nearly any country of the world but<br /> independently of ethnic identity.<br /> <br /> Similarly, Vikings in the 9th and 10th centuries may be better<br /> defined more by what they did than by their place of origin or<br /> DNA. By dropping the simplistic equation of Scandinavian with<br /> Viking, we may better understand what the early Viking Age was<br /> about and how Vikings reshaped the foundations of medieval<br /> Europe by adapting to different cultures, rather than trying<br /> to segregate them.<br /> <br /> <br /> http://theconversation.com/vikings-were-never-the-pure-bred-master-race-white-supremacists-like-to-portray-84455<br /> <br /> <br /> -- <br /> E-S &deg;&iquest;&deg;<br /> Ho plonkato tutti quelli che postano da Google Groups!<br /> Qui &egrave; Usenet, non &egrave; il Web!  

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