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  Inviato da: m.m.  Mostra tutti i messaggi di m.m.
Titolo: Antrocom Online Journal of Anthropology
Newsgroup: free.it.scienza.antropologia
Data: 19/06/2011
Ora: 12:44:23
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  ANTROCOM: Online Journal of Anthropology<br /> http://www.antrocom.net<br /> <br /> <br /> IT: Gentili Lettori e Amici Navigatori,<br /> il nuovo numero di Antrocom, Giornale Online di Antropologia (volume 7, <br /> numero 1, 2011), &egrave; online, mentre il sito web &egrave; stato completamente <br /> rinnovato!<br /> www.antrocom.net<br /> ---<br /> EN: Dear Readers and Friendly Websurfers,<br /> the new issue of Antrocom, Online Journal of Anthropology (volume 7, <br /> number 1, 2011), is online, and the website has been completely renovated!<br /> www.antrocom.net<br /> ---<br /> FR: Chers Lecteurs et Amis Navigateurs,<br /> le nouveau num&eacute;ro d&rsquo; Antrocom, Journal En ligne d&rsquo;Anthropologie (volume <br /> 7, num&eacute;ro 1, 2011), est en ligne, et le site a &eacute;t&eacute; enti&egrave;rement r&eacute;nov&eacute;!<br /> www.antrocom.net<br /> ---<br /> ---<br /> <br /> <br /> HISTORY OF RELIGIONS<br /> <br /> I re tragici di Israele &ndash; La narrazione delle origini della monarchia in <br /> Israele come problema storico<br /> by MARCO MENICOCCI<br /> <br /> Nell&rsquo;analisi dei documenti antichi la Storia delle religioni ha scelto <br /> sovente di di leggere questi documenti come testimonianze di realt&agrave; <br /> storiche religiose di epoche anteriori a quella dei documenti stessi. <br /> Alla base di una simile scelta c&rsquo;era l&rsquo;implicita convinzione che la <br /> religione fosse un prodotto culturale statico, dotata di un naturale <br /> conservatorismo, per cui il complesso dell&rsquo;universo religioso di una <br /> certa epoca tendeva, cos&igrave; si riteneva, a prolungarsi nelle epoche <br /> posteriori con mutamenti minimi. In questo modo un documento di una <br /> certa epoca che si riferiva ad un&rsquo;epoca anteriore era facilmente <br /> interpretato come una valida testimonianza su quest&rsquo;epoca anteriore.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY<br /> <br /> Micro-Etnografia notturna &ndash; Riflessioni di un antropologo in discoteca<br /> by ALESSANDRO TESTA<br /> <br /> Non sono un frequentatore abituale di discoteche o di clubs, come si <br /> preferisce chiamarle oggi. Questi appunti sono l&rsquo;esito di osservazioni <br /> che hanno avuto luogo in alcune discoteche romane molto frequentate e da <br /> me precedentemente sconosciute, nell&rsquo;arco temporale di alcuni <br /> fine-settimana di primavera. Essi pongono, credo, problemi metodologici <br /> di &ldquo;scala&rdquo; e di rappresentativit&agrave; del documento etnografico che pure <br /> saranno affrontati brevemente nel testo, per la scrittura del quale ho <br /> scelto un taglio stilistico molto descrittivo, non informale ma nemmeno <br /> saggistico.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Royal Anthropological Institute or Royal Academy? Post-Modern <br /> Anthropology as Contemporary Art<br /> by EDWARD DUTTON<br /> <br /> It has been widely argued that postmodern and cultural relativism are <br /> replacement religions in Romantic, neo-tribal tradition (e.g. Scruton <br /> 2000, Kuznar 1997) This article attempts to better understand the nature <br /> of postmodern anthropology by looking at it through the prism of Art. <br /> Following Scruton (2000), it argues that, since the Enlightenment, Art <br /> has performed a similar function to Christianity in many people&rsquo;s lives <br /> and is accordingly a form of replacement religion. The article <br /> demonstrates that while modern forms of anthropology might be deemed <br /> &lsquo;religious,&rsquo; the cultural relativist anthropology of Margaret Mead <br /> appears to be art whereas this is less clear with postmodern <br /> anthropology. The article argues that the boundaries between postmodern <br /> (or &lsquo;contemporary&rsquo;) anthropology and visual &lsquo;Contemporary Art&rsquo; are <br /> essentially weak and that postmodern anthropology is usefully understood <br /> as exemplifying contemporary art. Accordingly, it has no place in <br /> scholarly discourse. It is a replacement religion by virtue of its <br /> artistic nature.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> &quot;One Culture &ndash; Many Perspectives&quot; &ndash; Understanding Cultural Diversity <br /> Through Rural Livelhioods. A Reflection from the Rural Craft Communities <br /> in Kandy, Sri Lanka<br /> by CHANDIMA DILHANI DASKON<br /> <br /> There is no universally accepted definition for the concept of culture. <br /> Culture should be understood as a specific and unique phenomenon that <br /> affirms community&rsquo;s identity and diversity. Judging one culture by the <br /> values of another, over-simplifies the distinctiveness and the wealth of <br /> a particular culture. Recognising, understanding and respecting dynamics <br /> of cultural norms, and defending and expanding cultural freedom are <br /> crucial in assuring secure and sustainable well-being of any community. <br /> This paper investigates different perspectives of culture by referring <br /> to everyday livelihood activities of rural communities that engage in <br /> traditional craft industries in the Kandyan region, Sri Lanka. In a <br /> livelihood perspective, culture is defined as a structure, function, <br /> product and identity, through its influence on everyday lives of people, <br /> and accordingly people&rsquo;s engagement with and uses of culture. Culture is <br /> multifaceted and extremely diverse entity that varies from place to <br /> place and person to person. The strengths of cultural diversity should <br /> be respected and accepted by mainstream society, if any initiative is to <br /> be truly about satisfying human desires.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Does Indigenous Knowledge have anything to deal with Sustainable <br /> Development?<br /> by ASHOK DAS GUPTA<br /> <br /> In this paper, the author investigates that whether indigenous knowledge <br /> has anything to do with sustainable development. First of all this has <br /> been targeted to work out that how could knowledge be treated as a <br /> integral part of culture that has very broadly a material and a <br /> non-material part. This has been tried to see that what happens to <br /> knowledge of a folk life when culture develops in civilization. Next <br /> step is to see how knowledge of the local/folk/indigenous communities of <br /> human society systematically work and construct Traditional Knowledge <br /> System (TKS). Traditional knowledge is very much functional and still it <br /> is heavily value-loaded and dependent on non- adaptive socio-cultural <br /> features. Traditional knowledge traits are not always open but sometimes <br /> very much hidden in type- so these have to decode from cultural symbols <br /> exclusively in the religious laboratory of survival. In a global context <br /> this has been tried to understand the necessity of Indigenous Knowledge <br /> System (IKS) constructed by summation of TKS worldwide scattered. The <br /> aim is to gain Global Public Services from IKS to meet the negative <br /> impacts of Globalization especially falling on nature. This looks like a <br /> passive support towards Globalization with virtue of Indigenous Rights <br /> for the Indigenous Peoples (not to be much discussed here). However, <br /> failure of unidirectional development in Global Market Economy has been <br /> tried to be mitigated by IKS that has nothing to deal with romanticism <br /> but sustainability even at an extra-scientific humanitarian ground. Out <br /> of so many services by IKS so to attain a sustainable development; <br /> biodiversity management at a community-specific level within a <br /> particular ecosystem is exclusive and probably the timeliest approach.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> The Rebellion in Heaven &ndash; The beginning<br /> by MAXIMILIANO E. KORSTANJE<br /> <br /> &gt;From Middle Age onwards, the philosophers and theologians devoted <br /> notable endeavors to explain the evilness in the Hebrew-tradition. <br /> Whether one figure out God is an entity characterized by love, <br /> compression and omnipresence, it remains to be seen why he creates <br /> exactly his most staunch enemy, or why one of his loved and wisest <br /> angels converts in a corrupted being decisively launched to tempt the <br /> humanity. Grammatically speaking, there is no status in the language for <br /> the death of a son (a person who loss its father is orphan, the wife, <br /> widow but what about the son?. This reveals of course, the taboo that <br /> represents the nominal state of a person one looses its off-spring. The <br /> founding myth of Lucifer exhibits two contrasting beliefs: For one hand, <br /> the interconnection between the humans and betrayal are symbolized under <br /> the figure of pride and arrogance marked the end of Lucifer at defying <br /> the god-will. But for the other hand, it demonstrates the strong <br /> attachment of a father by his son. The Seraphim Lucifer seems to be in <br /> fact the negation of death of children, a belief en-rooted in the <br /> idiosyncrasy of late-capitalism.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> The Parihaka Cult<br /> by KERRY R. BOLTON<br /> <br /> Parihaka is a Maori community in Taranaki, New Zealand, established <br /> during the latter part of the 19th Century as an enclave of &ldquo;passive <br /> resistance&rdquo; to colonial land development, based around the personality <br /> cults of Te Whiti, and his deputy and later rival, Tohu. After years of <br /> obstruction, theft and vandalism, Parihaka was occupied by colonial <br /> troops and volunteers in 1881 and its non-local inhabitants dispersed in <br /> an effort to eliminate the resistance. Te Whiti and Tohu have over the <br /> past several decades been accorded the status as precursors of Martin <br /> Luther King, Gandhi and Nelson Mandela and the colonial occupation is <br /> widely portrayed as one of the greatest injustices inflicted on the <br /> Maori. This paper offers a more critical view, and attempts to put the <br /> Parihaka phenomenon in context historically and socially.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Secondary Burial of the Chakpa Lois of Phayeng Village, Manipur, India<br /> by HOABIJAM VOKENDRO SINGH<br /> <br /> The Chakpa Lois of Phayeng village despite of a lot of influence from <br /> major communities still embrace their traditional death ritual by <br /> burning the body and picking up the bones by misubis and kept into a <br /> luphu and buried with due ritualistic observation.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY<br /> <br /> Appraisal of risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2 in central Indian <br /> population: a case control study<br /> by RAMA LAKSHMI G., BANDYOPADHYAY S.S., BHASKAR L.V.K.S., SHARMA <br /> MADHUBALA, RAO RAGHAVENDRA V.<br /> <br /> Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high levels of blood <br /> glucose, late onset of disease and associated with serious <br /> complications. Genetic and environmental risk factors are known to exist <br /> and the importance of elucidating these risk factors in different <br /> populations will be of importance in view of the ultimate goal of <br /> personalized medicine. The objective was to assess the impact of risk <br /> factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), and <br /> Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) on diabetic and control subjects using <br /> statistical tools in a specific geographical category of Indian population.<br /> Methods: 92 diabetic patients and 123 controls living in urban areas of <br /> Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India, were selected for a case control study. <br /> BMI, WC, WHR, fasting glucose, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) <br /> and skinfold thickness at four points were assessed. For logical <br /> interpretation, the data have been subjected to statistical analysis <br /> such as risk ratio, odds ratio and chi square. Multivariate regression <br /> analysis was carried out to adjust for age and sex.<br /> Results: The plasma glucose, HDL cholesterol and Waist to hip ratio are <br /> significant in between control and diabetes subjects even after <br /> adjusting to age and sex.<br /> Conclusion: Comparison of diabetic and control showed that the central <br /> obesity (WHR) and HDL were most important risk factors for type 2 <br /> diabetes in the studied population.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Natural Selection Intensity in Settibalija - A Mendelian Human <br /> Population from South India<br /> by DEVA S.R.S. PRAKASH, GODI SUDHAKAR<br /> <br /> The selection intensity indices were computed based on the demographic <br /> information pertaining to fertility and mortality among Settibalija, an <br /> endogamous Mendelian population of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The <br /> total fertility and mortality indices are slightly lower than other <br /> Andhra populations studied earlier. In the present caste population, the <br /> selection is manifested primarily through differential fertility rather <br /> than mortality, which is a not deviation from general trend. The results <br /> are discussed in the light of earlier studies on some caste and tribal <br /> populations inhabiting Andhra Pradesh, South India.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Obesity, Diabetes and the Thrifty Gene - The Case of the Pima<br /> by FLAVIA BUSATTA<br /> <br /> What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. According to WHO: &ldquo;Diabetes is <br /> a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce <br /> enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it <br /> produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. <br /> Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of <br /> uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of <br /> the body&rsquo;s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.&rdquo; The CDC&rsquo;s <br /> National Diabetes Fact Sheet (2007) defines diabetes in this way: <br /> &ldquo;Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose <br /> resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. <br /> Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, but <br /> people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the <br /> risk of complications.&rdquo;<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of PARKIN Gene in Ten Indian Populations<br /> by JAYA SANYAL, LVKS BHASKAR, AVISHEK CHATTERJEE, BISWANATH SARKAR, <br /> BIDHAN CHANDRA RAY, VADLAMUDI RAGHAVENDRA RAO<br /> <br /> Parkinson&rsquo;s disease (PD) is the second most common progressive <br /> neurodegenerative brain disorder after Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease. Due to the <br /> complex etiology of PD, there is possibility that single nucleotide <br /> polymorphisms (SNP) in PARKIN gene could be associated with the disease <br /> and lead to the pathogenesis by genoenvironmental interactions. Role of <br /> PARKIN polymorphisms as risk factors varies in different populations <br /> among various ethnic groups. Indian populations, known for their rich <br /> diversity, are not included in the genotyping of single nucleotide <br /> polymorphisms in the global survey for all the genes associated with PD. <br /> Further detailed study in this field will give a greater insight to <br /> analyze the haplotypic and Linakage Disequilibrium (LD) and decipher the <br /> pathogenesis of PD patterns in this region. A total of 1000 individuals <br /> belonging to ten ethnic populations of India were included in the <br /> present study. Five PARKIN gene polymorphisms (rs1801474, rs72480421, <br /> rs1801582, rs1801334 and rs35125035) were screened by PCR and <br /> sequencing. The present study shows that the rs72480421 (His200Gln) is <br /> monomorphic for all populations. Five major haplotypes accounted for <br /> almost all chromosomes (90-98%) in all populations studied. LD was more <br /> fragmented across PARKIN locus in all populations. The haplotype <br /> diversity and the fragmented LD across PARKIN gene in all populations of <br /> the present study suggest the existence of frequent recombination within <br /> the large introns of the PARKIN gene.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Sul rapporto tra Athena e Medusa<br /> by IGOR BAGLIONI<br /> <br /> Hartswick in uno studio dedicato alle rappresentazioni di Medusa <br /> connesse all&rsquo;egida della dea Athena, pone in relazione lo Ione di <br /> Euripide &ndash; nel quale &egrave; la dea stessa ad uccidere direttamente Gorgo &ndash; <br /> con un processo, iniziato con l&rsquo;instaurazione della democrazia ad Atene, <br /> che avrebbe visto la messa in ombra di Perseus in quanto entit&agrave; mitica <br /> strettamente legata a Pisistrato e ai suoi discendenti. Lo studioso, <br /> infatti, tramite un&rsquo;analisi delle fonti iconografiche, sostiene che le <br /> figure di Perseus e Medusa potessero essere state utilizzate da parte di <br /> Pisistrato a simboleggiare la sua alleanza con Argo: citt&agrave; dalla quale <br /> proveniva la sua seconda moglie Timonassa e le truppe mercenarie che <br /> consentirono il ritorno al potere del tiranno nel 560 a. C. Pertanto, <br /> l&rsquo;eroe di Argo e Gorgo, come sembrerebbe potersi rilevare dalle fonti <br /> iconografiche del periodo, sarebbero stati inseriti nel generale <br /> programma di promozione della dea Athena attuato dal tiranno, cosa che <br /> comport&ograve;, con l&rsquo;instaurazione della democrazia e la promozione di <br /> Theseus come eroe rappresentante la nuova polis, la &ldquo;marginalizzazione&rdquo; <br /> del figlio di Danae. Per lo studioso, quindi, la variante mitica per la <br /> quale &egrave; la dea Athena stessa ad uccidere Medusa andrebbe interpretata <br /> come parte integrante di questo processo: come riflesso della <br /> &ldquo;marginalizzazione&rdquo; di Perseus sul piano della tragedia.<br /> ---<br /> <br /> Contrastive Study of &ldquo;Time&rdquo; in Iranian-Indian Mythology<br /> by BIBIAGHDAS ASGHARI, ANNAPURNA M.<br /> <br /> The main aim in the study is to compare and contrast the textual <br /> contents and the formal structures that are involved in the myth of <br /> &lsquo;time&rsquo; in Indian and Iranian mythologies. Three questions will be <br /> replay: What are the divisions of time? What is the function of time in <br /> the mythical system in both myths of Iran and India? And what is the <br /> formal structure in this myth in the both mythologies? Data collection <br /> for this article has been done with a documentary approach. The Primary <br /> sources involved the Avesta and the RigVeda and secondary sources <br /> (include: 31 books, related article) were reviewed, after data gathered <br /> from those, the data analysis has been done in this study.<br /> Comparison of two myths is done with following mythical three indices: <br /> 1. Structure (trinity) 2.Binary Oppositions 3.Archetypal patterns time. <br /> In the Iranian myth, like the Hindu myth time is divided into three and <br /> then again four part horizontally. In Hindu myths, time is cyclical. <br /> Lord Brahma in Hindu mythology is referred to as the creator. The <br /> Zoroastrian concept of time is linear not cyclical. In the creation myth <br /> Unlimited/limited and Numeric /Divine time are cosmic oppositions; <br /> Golden Age / Iron Age indicate sociological opposition.<br /> <br /> <br /> ---<br /> ---<br /> IT: Arrivederci sul sito di Antrocom, Giornale Online di Antropologia!<br /> http://www.antrocom.net<br /> <br /> EN: See you on the web site of Antrocom, Online Journal of Anthropology!<br /> http://www.antrocom.net<br /> <br /> FR: Au revoir sur le site d&rsquo; Antrocom, Journal En Ligne d&rsquo;Anthropologie!<br /> http://www.antrocom.net  

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